CONSTED is a leading and pioneering enterprise with the most advanced international level in R&D, manufacturing and selling of large-scale crushing & screening plants , industrial milling equipments and beneficiation plants.

contact info

social networks

Parking Lots | Washington Asphalt Pavement Association

Where parking lot geometry necessitates hand placed pavement, an increase in minimum slope to 4 percent (0.5 inches per foot) should be considered. Fine grade control is more difficult with hand placement than with machine placement. Parking lots placed in cut areas are more susceptible to moisture problems.

Asphalt Paving Design -

Asphalt pavement is a flexible pavement allowing it to withstand occasional over-loads without serious damage. Its resistance to freeze-thaw and deicing salts provides for superior performance during inclement weather. Its lack of repetitive joints removes the possibility of the blowups that

Asphalt Paving Design Guide - APAO

Asphalt Paving Design Guide prepared for the Asphalt Pavement Association of Oregon 5240 Gaffin Road, SE Salem, OR 97301 by R.G. Hicks Department of Civil Engineering Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331 Paul Curren Pavement Engineering Inc. Petaluma, CA 94954 and James R. Lundy Department of Civil Engineering Oregon State University

» Parking Lot Design

Minimum pavement thickness designs are given for both small parking areas (50 passenger car stalls or less) and larger facilities (over 50 passenger car stalls). In addition, comparable designs are given for both full­-depth asphalt pavement (pavements using asphalt concrete for both base and surface courses) and asphalt over an aggregate base.

Building Better Asphalt Trails - American Trails

Composite sections, consisting of asphalt pavement overlying aggregate base course, have an advantage in the ease of grading the base course to the proper level for placement of the asphalt pavement. If base course is used it should be a minus 1-1/2" and minus 3/4" aggregate size.


pavement or in gutters: 2% minimum slope on asphalt paving 5% maximum slope on asphalt paving 1% minimum slope on concrete paving 5% maximum slope on concrete paving .5% minimum slope in gutters 8% maximum slope in gutters 2% minimum slope in lawn areas intended to drain 3 horizontal to 1 vertical maximum slope in lawn areas

Minimum Roof Slopes Required by Roofing Material ...

Asphalt Shingles Minimum Roof Slope (Roof Pitch) | R905.2.2. Asphalt shingles can only be installed on roof slopes of 2:12 or greater. This means for every 12 horizontal units, the roof must rise a minimum of 2 vertical units. ... Clay and Concrete Tile requires a minimum …

Minimum slope to drain a parking lot. - Concrete ...

the minimum is 100-year water level must be below the finished floor. you need to do some engineering analysis to make sure that works. otherwise you can set your driveway to anything you want assuming the building department will approve it. you will need a grading and drainage permit so that is part of the process. normally I like to see 2% minimum for both cross slope and longitudinal.

Drainage gradient - Wikipedia

Drainage gradient (DG) is a term in road design, defined as the combined slope due to road surface cross slope (CS) and longitudinal slope (hilliness). Although the term may not be used, the concept is also used in roof design and landscape architecture.. If the drainage gradient is too low, rain and melt water drainage will be insufficient.

Chapter 5 Parking Lot Design - APAI

Minimum pavement thickness designs are given for various size parking lots, heavily-loaded ar eas, and industrial parking lots. In addition, this ... allow the Asphalt Concrete to cure for several days. Construction Practices ... should have a minimum slope of …

Installation of Concrete Pavers on Steep Slopes

The pavement surface should have a minimum 2-percent crown or crossfall to direct water to its sides. A crown can increase interlock as the pavers settle slightly from traffic. The cross slope should allow for sheet drainage of runoff to the sides of the pavement. Flush curbs will allow the water to move off the pavement.

Minimum Grades - Earthwork/grading engineering - Eng-Tips

I've seen large areas paved (asphalt) to 1%, and large concrete hardstands at 1% and less, without any obvious problems. Of course more care needs to be taken to achieve that with minimal birdbaths. If a slope which promotes rapid runoff isn't possible, other methods could be used to prevent excessive ponding during rainfall, such as trench drains.

Chapter 9: Roof Assemblies, Residential Code 2018 of ...

Fasteners for asphalt shingles shall be galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum or copper roofing nails, minimum 12-gage [0.105 inch (3 mm)] shank with a minimum 3 / 8-inch-diameter (9.5 mm) head, complying with ASTM F1667, of a length to penetrate through the roofing materials and not less than 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Design Manual Roadway Section 5

a high point (crown) in the middle of the traveled way and slope downward toward both edges. The minimum cross slope for concrete pavement and bituminous pavement should be 1.5 percent. The cross slope shall be uniform across the pavement section, from the high point to the edge of lane. The cross slope in each successive lane should be ...

STATE OF NEW YORK - New York State Department of ...

the paving limit may extend beyond the minimum paving limit for new driveways and to transition to existing paved driveways. the paving limit will be noted in the driveway table of the contract plans. for grading and construction requirements of transitions from placed asphalt concrete to existing asphalt concrete driveways, refer to the "tie-in to


porous asphalt pavement design are: n Consider the location for porous pavements early in the site design process. n Soil infiltration rates of 0.1 to 10 inches/hour work best. n Minimum depth to bedrock or seasonal high water should be greater than two feet. n The bottom of the infiltration bed should be flat to maximize the infiltration area.

Your Contractor Should Meet or Exceed ... - Palermo Paving

Full-depth asphalt for a light-duty parking lot on an excellent subgrade should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. A heavy-duty parking lot on a poor subgrade needs to be 10 to 12 inches thick. For parking lots with both aggregate and hot-mix asphalt, some contractors recommend a total depth of at least 9 inches.


Type SP Asphalt Concrete mixtures: 1. A minimum 1-1/2 inch initial lift is required over an Asphalt Rubber Membrane Interlayer (ARMI). 2. When construction includes the paving of adjacent shoulders (less than or equal to 5 feet wide), the layer thickness for the upper pavement …

2018 Asphalt Parking Lot Design Guide

to the manufacture and use of asphalt paving materials. The ultimate quality of an asphalt paving project is directly related to the experience, skill, professionalism, and equipment of the contractor doing the project. This is why WAPA urges consumers to be sure that bidders for their asphalt paving projects are properly qualified asphalt pavers.

Gradients and Falls | Pavingexpert

Introduction: Most paving ¹ and drainage relies on fall to carry away the water to somewhere less troublesome. Fall may also be referred to as slope or, more correctly, gradient. By making one part of the pavement or drainage pipe higher than another, gravity can be relied upon to persuade the water in a preferred direction.

Hydraulic Design Manual: Pavement Drainage

Anchor: #i1014976 Section 4: Pavement Drainage Anchor: #i1014981 Design Objectives. The objective of urban storm drainage is to provide safe passage of vehicle traffic by collecting stormwater from the roadway, and to convey it safely to an adequate receiving body while preventing damage to adjacent private properties or undue risk to pedestrian traffic during the design storm event.

Roof slope guidelines | Professional Roofing magazine

For steep-slope roof systems, IBC 2018 provides for a 1:12 minimum roof slope for mineral-surfaced roof roll roofing; 2:12 minimum roof slope for asphalt shingles, photovoltaic (PV) shingles and building-integrated PV; 2 1/2:12 minimum roof slope for clay and concrete tile; 3:12 minimum roof slope for metal roof panels with nonsoldered seams ...

Minimum Roof Pitch for Every Roofing Material • Roof Online

All other flat roof materials require a minimum slope of ¼-in-12, which is why flat roofs are properly known as "low-slope" roofs. Asphalt roof shingles have a minimum slope requirement of 2-in-12 with a double application of underlayment, and 4-in-12 otherwise.Most other pitched roofing materials, such as clay tile or metal panels, require minimum …

Engineering Design Guidelines - Street Design

150 feet minimum distance (curb to driveway edge) between street intersection and driveways . 3. Street intersection curb radii . 30 feet . 4. Longitudinal slope .006 ft/ft (minimum) 5. Grade Break in vertical curves . 0.5% Max. If exceed 0.5%, provide a vertical curve . 6. Minimum length of tangents between centerline curves . 50 feet . 7 ...

Chapter 3 Pavement Patching and Repair

the life of a pavement and to identify pavement distress. It must be noted that proper documentation and communication is of greatest importance. This will be developed in greater detail as this chapter progresses. 3-2 Reference Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge, and Municipal Construction M 41-10 Asphalt Institute

(PDF) Minimum acceptable cross slopes of asphalt roads for ...

as well as the types and intensities of pavement cracks. Figure (19) showed that for smooth asphalt pavement surfac e with rain fall intensities. from 10 to 40 mm, normal cross slope of 1.5% to 2 ...

Installation of Concrete Pavers on Steeply Sloped ...

under asphalt pavement. (A few examples include California = Class 2; ia = 21A, Ontario = ... pavement, this beam should be a minimum of 6 in. wide by 12 in. (150 mm x 300 mm) deep with one ... 25% slope. The paving pattern imitates a herringbone which is rec-ommended for sloped applications. This photo shows a four year-old pavement ...

Asphalt Pavement Construction - Asphalt Institute

The Asphalt Institute recommends a transverse slope of between 1.5 to 3.0% on all pavement surfaces, and an even steeper slope of 3 to 6% on shoulders. Maintaining a slope of at least 1.5% on parking lots will ensure proper surface drainage (no ponding or birdbaths) and minimize infiltration, hydroplaning and the detrimental effects of water.

What is the minimum asphalt slope for water flow? - Quora

Answer (1 of 2): From the lazy physicist perspective, I would assume that asphalt is an ideal, smooth surface with no friction and that water has zero viscosity. With these assumptions, I can say any angle greater than zero degrees from the horizontal should work. For a slightly less lazy answer...

How much slope should a tennis court have? –

A tennis court can slope from side-to-side, end-to-end, or corner-to-corner. A tennis court should never be crowned in the middle. On a properly built grass surface, the slope can be as little as .25%. On a porous surface, the slope can be .25 – .4%, and .8 to 1% on a nonporous surface.


B. Only hot mix asphaltic concrete (HMAC) shall be used. C. Apply HMAC in dry weather when the pavement and atmospheric temperatures are at a minimum 40o F and anticipated to remain above this temperature for at least 4 hours after application. D. The minimum allowable slope of any asphalt pavement shall be 2%. PART 2: EXECUTION


This document was developed by the Colorado Asphalt Pavement Association (CAPA). It is intended to be used as a resource in the design and construction of asphalt parking lots in Colorado. CAPA can ... minimum slope of 2 percent (2%) or 1/4 inch per foot. This guideline may not be realistic

What is the minimum pitch/slope of an asphalt shingle roof?

Asphalt shingle roofing is designed to shed water that is flowing downward over its surface, with each shingle overlapping the one below. But shingle roofing is not watertight, in the sense that standing water—or wind-driven water on a low-slope roof—can work its way up between the laps, which is the reason for the minimum 2/12 slope.